Pigmentation and iridescence.
The protective scales of a goldfish forms the outer covering of the body called the epidermis. Under it is a layer known as the dermis and beneath the dermis is a layer of fat and muscle. In these layers and contains pigments that give goldfish as vivid color. It is reddish-orange, and yellow pigments – lipochrome – and melanin, a black pigment. Lipochrome commonly found in the upper layers, but the whereabouts of the black pigment is different. If the melanin is located just under the scales, the goldfish looks coal-black; if deeper, the fish looks blue.When different layers are present in both type of pigments, the fish has a chocolate or copper colour. Goldfish, am entirely devoid of pigmentation, has a silver color.
Another factor not affecting the appearance of a goldfish, is present in the dermis iridotomy. Usually these cells are scattered throughout the body, giving the fish a shiny appearance. However, some types of goldfish top iridotomy missing. In takakusagi the bottom layer of cells has a direct impact on the appearance of the fish, giving the fish a pinkish Shine. Such individuals are called perlamutrovie. For example, shubunkin – perlamutrovie goldfish. When eritrotsitov not at all, fish has a matte appearance.
The origin and pedigree.
Goldfish are descended from carp, which razvodili China about 1700 years ago. The first mention of orange carp date back to 300 BC. but only in the year 800 ad during the reign of the song dynasty, these bright and to breed carp for decorative purposes. Goldfish are widely present in the Eastern literature and other works of art, including pottery, and these sources allow us to trace their development.
In the XVI century, goldfish, bili brought to Japan, where it was showing a lot of new breeds, but it took another 200 years before they became known in the West. Soon they began to use at the demand among the European aristocracy and kept in decorative bowls in the best houses. Oddly enough, in North America, they first appeared only in 1874. Nevertheless, their popularity grew so quickly that the first kommercheskom farm for breeding goldfish was founded in the U.S. 15 years later.